Rukum District (Nepali: रुकुम जिल्लाaudio speaker iconListen (help·info)) was a “hill” and “mountain” district some 280 km (170 mi) west of Kathmandu partially belonging to Lumbini Province and partially to Karnali Province before split into two districts Western Rukum and Eastern Rukum after the state’s reconstruction of administrative divisions in 2017.[2] Rukum covers an area of 2,877 km2 (1,111 sq mi) with population of 207,290 in 2011 Nepal census. Musikot (also called Jhumlikhalanga)[citation needed] was the district’s administrative center.

Rukum district has potential tourist attractions that remain largely unexplored including yarsagumba (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) collection caravan destinations, historical sites from the ten-year insurrection including the seat of a breakaway government in Banphikot, eastern Rukum, and the so-called Guerrilla Trek passes through this area that was a hotbed for recruiting and training as well as a battleground during Nepal’s civil war (1996-2006). (. There is 5,911 metres (19,393 ft) Mt. Sisne (Nepali: सिस्ने हिमाल), the westernmost high peak in the Dhaulagiri massif. Locals refer to Sisne as Hiunchuli (hiu: snow; chuli: top) and it is considered sacred as the abode of deities Masta and Saikumari. Climbing history on the mountain is not well documented and an eight-man expedition led by Man Bahadur Khatri reached the summit ridge in May 2013. Rukumkot, a prominent village in Rukum is referred to as “the place of 52 lakes and 53 hills”. Rukumkot (Nepali: all of them Shyarpu Tal (Lake) is largest lake in Rukum रुकुमकोट) has a beautiful pond called Rukmini Tal or locally Kamal Dhaha for its lotus flowers (kamal: lotus). Nearby are notable temples called Barah and Sibalaya, and caves such as Deurali Cave.

It is about a four-hour bus ride from Dang Tulsipur to Rukum Musikot.
The two airports in Rukum are in Chaurjahari (Nepali: चौरजहारी) and Salle (Nepali: सल्ले).
Rukum was a flashpoint of the Maoist insurgency, along with neighboring Rolpa district. Rukum became a stronghold and was controlled by insurgents throughout the conflict. Many Maoist leaders came from this district, as well as many martyred insurgents. But now Rukum is known as a new tourism destination in Nepal. The Government of Nepal with the Nepal Tourism Board, Rukum District officials, Maoists party leaders, and a foreign author of a guidebook and map to the area launched the Guerrilla Trek (Peace Trail) with a ceremony in Kathmandu in Oct 2012.